Unfortunately we currently do not have a function that disables the TinyMCE shortcode embedder button for the editor. Also, even if we did, users could still add shortcodes manually (of course if they knew the shortcodes that is).
We may consider implementing more security toggles such as disabling this button in the future. We currently have a similar function in General Plugin Settings (cog icon in CJT dashboard page) that disables Metabox code blocks at the page/post level. In the future, we could extend this form and have a toggle to disable the CJT shortcode button.